1. Haffner SM, Lehto S, Rönnemaa T, et al. Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes and in nondiabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infraction. N Engl J Med 1998;339:229–234.
2. Haffner SM, Alexander CM, Cook TJ, et al. Reduced coronary events in simvastatin-treated patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose levels: subgroup analyses in the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study. Arch Intern Med 1999;159: 2661–2667.
3. Sowers JR, Epstein M, Frolich ED. Diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease: an update. Hypertension 2001;37:1053–1059.
4. Miettinen H, Lehto S, Salomaa V, et al. Impact of diabetes on mortality after the first myocardial infarction. Diabetes Care 1998;21:69–75.
5. Manson JE, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, et al. A prospective study of maturity-onset diabetes mellitus and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in women. Arch Intern Med 1991;151:1141–1147.
6. Gustafsson I, Hildebrundt P. Early failure of the diabetic heart. Diabetes Care 2001:24(1):3–4.
7. Shindler DM, Kostis JB, Yusuf S, et al. Diabetes mellitus, a predictor of morbidity and mortality in the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLV) Trials and Registry. Am J Cardiol 1996;77:1017–1020.
8. Sowers JR. Diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in women. Arch Int Med 1998;158:617–621.
9. Grundy SM, Benjamin IJ, Burke GL, et al. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 1999;100:1134–1146.
10. McFarlane SI, Banerji M, Sowers JR. Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:713–718.
11. McFarlane SI, Jacober SJ, Winer N, et al. Control of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with diabetes and hypertension at urban academic medical centers. Diabetes Care 2002;25:718–723.
12. Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA 2002;288:2981–2997.
13. Appel LJ. The verdict from ALLHAT—thiazide diuretics are the preferred initial therapy for hypertension. JAMA 2002;288:3039–3042.
14. McFarlane SI, Sowers JR. Cardiovascular endocrinology 1: aldosterone function in diabetes mellitus: effects on cardiovascular and renal disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88(2);516–523.
15. Assman G, Cullen P, Schulte H. Simple scoring scheme for calculating the risk of acute coronary events based on the 10-year follow-up of the prospective cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM) study. Circulation 2002;105:310–315.
16. Bakris GL, Williams M, Dworkin L, et al. Preserving renal function in adults with hypertension and diabetes: a consensus approach. National Kidney Foundation Hypertension and Diabetes Executive Committees Working Group. Am J Kidney Dis 2000;36:646–661.
17. Gerstein HC, Mann JF, Yi Q, et al., HOPE Study Investigators. Albuminuria and risk of cardiovascular events, death and heart failure in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. JAMA 2001;286:421–426.
18. Miettinen H, Haffner SM, Lehto S, et al. Proteinuria predicts stroke and other atherosclerotic vascular disease events in nondiabetic and non–insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Stroke 1996;27:2033–2039.
19. Intensive blood-glucose controls with sulfonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33), UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Lancet 1998;325:837–853.
20. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care for patients with diabetes mellitus (Position Statement). Diabetes Care 2002;25 (suppl 1):33–49.
21. Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, et al., Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study Group. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Eng J Med 2001;344:1343–1350.
22. Sachs FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer VM, et al. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 2001;344(1):3–10.
23. Obarzanek E, Sacks FM, Vollmer WM, et al., DASH Research Group. Effects on blood lipids of a blood pressure lowering diet. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74(1):80–89.
24. Stamler J, Vaccaro O, Neaton JD, et al. Diabetes, other risk factors, and 12-year cardiovascular mortality for men screened in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Diabetes Care 1993;16:434–444.
25. Rodriguez BL, Lau N, Burchfiel CM, et al. Glucose intolerance and 23-year risk of coronary heart disease and total mortality. The Honolulu Heart Program. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1262–1265.
26. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS. BMJ 1998;317:703–713.
27. Coronary heart disease risk assessment in diabetes mellitus—a comparison of PROCAM and Framingham risk assessment functions. Diabet Med 2001;18(5):355–359.
28. Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BEK, et al. The association of glycemia and cause-specific mortality in a diabetic population. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:2473–2479.
29. Kuusisto J, Mykkanen L, Pyorala K, et al. NIDDM and its metabolic control predict coronary heart disease in elderly subjects. Diabetes 1994;43:960–967.
30. Andersson DKG, Svardsudd K. Long-term glycemic control relates to mortality in type II diabetes. Diabetes Care 1995;18:534–543.
31. Gall MA, Borch-Johnson K, Hougaard P, et al. Albuminuria and poor glycemic control predict mortality in NIDDM. Diabetes 1995;44: 1303–1309.
32. Hadden DR, Patterson CC, Atkinson AB, et al. Macrovascular disease and hyperglycemia: 10 year survival analysis in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Belfast Diet Study. Diabet Med 1997;14:663–672.
33. UKPDS (United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Group). Risk factors for coronary artery disease in non-insulin dependent diabetes (UKPDS23). BMJ 1998;316:823–828.
34. Wei M, Gaskell SP, Haffner SM, et al. Effects of diabetes and level of glycemia on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The San Antonio Heart Study. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1167–1172.
35. Ohkubo Y, Kishikawa H, Araki E, et al. Intensive insulin therapy prevents the progression of diabetic microvascular complications in Japanese patients with non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a randomized prospective 6-year study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1995; 28:103–117.
36. Malmberg K, Ryden L, Efendic S, et al. Randomized trial of insulin-glucose infusion followed by subcutaneous insulin treatment in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction (DIGAMI study): effects on mortality at 1 year. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995;26:57–65.
37. Lawson M, Gerstein HC, Tsui E, et al. Effect of intensive therapy on early macrovascular disease in young individuals with type 1 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 1999;22(2): B35–B39.
38. American Diabetes Association. Treatment of hypertension in adults with diabetes (position statement). Diabetes Care 2002;25(suppl I): 71–73.
39. Hansson L, Zanchetti A, Carruthers SG, et al., for the HOT Study Group. Effects of intensive blood pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomized trial. Lancet 1998;351: 1755–1762.
40. Tuomilehto J, Rastenyte D, Birkenhager WH, et al., for the Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial Investigators. Effects of calcium channel blockers in older patients with diabetes and systolic hypertension. N Engl J Med 1999;340:677–684.
41. Niskanen L, Hedner T, Hansson L, for the CAPP study group. Reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive diabetic patients on first-line therapy with an ACE inhibitor compared with a diuretic/beta-blocker-based treatment regimen: a subanalysis of the Captopril Prevention Project. Diabetes Care 2001:24:2091–2096.
42. Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study Investigators. Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in people with diabetes: results of the HOPE study and Micro-HOPE substudy. Lancet 2000;355:253–259.
43. Adler AI, Stratton IM, Neil HA, et al. Association of systolic blood pressure with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 36): prospective observational study. BMJ 2000; 321:412–419.
44. Lindholm LH, Ibsen H, Dahlof B, et al., the LIFE Study Group. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol. Lancet 2002;359(9311): 1004–1010.
45. Mogensen CE, Neldam S, Tikkanen I, et al. Randomized controlled trial of dual blockade of renin-angiotensin system in patients with hypertension, microalbuminuria, and non-insulin dependent diabetes: the candesartan and lisinopril microalbuminuria (CALM) study. BMJ 2000;321(7274):1440–1444.
46. Sniderman AD, Scantlebury T, Cianflone K. Hypertriglyceridemic hyperapoB: the unappreciated atherogenic dyslipoproteinemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med 2001;135(6):447–459.
47. LIPID (Long-Term Intervention with Provastatin in Ischemic Disease) Study Group. Prevention of cardiovascular events and death with pravastatin in patients with coronary heart disease and a broad range of initial cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med 1998;339:1349–1357.
48. Haffner SM, Alexander CM, Cook TJ, et al. Reduced coronary events in simvastatin-treated patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose levels: subgroup analysis in the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study. Arch Intern Med 1999;159: 2661–2667.
49. Sacks FM, Tonkin AM, Cranen T, et al. Coronary heart disease in patients with low LDL-cholesterol: benefits of pravastatin in diabetes and enhanced role for HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides as risk factors. Circulation 2002;105:1424–1428.
50. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2002;360:7–22.
51. McFarlane SI, Muniyappa R, Francisco R, et al. Pleiotropic effects of statins: lipid reduction and beyond. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87: 1451–1458.
52. Hak AE, Stehouwer CD, Bots ML, et al. Associations of C-reactive protein with measures of obesity, insulin resistance, and subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy, middle-aged women. Atheroscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:1986–1991.
53. Sowers JR. Hypertension, angiotensin II, and oxidative stress. N Engl J Med 2002;346:1999–2001.
54. Natarjan R, Gerrity RG, Gu J-L, et al. Role of 12-lipoxygenase and oxidant stress in hyperglycemia-induced acceleration of atherosclerosis in a diabetic pig model. Diabetologia 2002;45:125–133.
55. Pradhan AD, Ridker PM. Do atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes share a common inflammatory basis? Eur Heart J 2002;195:1–4.
56. Cai L, Kang YJ. Oxidative stress and diabetic cardiomyopathy: a brief review. Cardiovasc Toxicol 2001;1:181–193.
57. Kowluru RA, Engerman RL, Kern TS. Diabetes-induced metabolic abnormalities in myocardium: effect of antioxidant therapy. Free Radic Res 2000;32:67–74.
58. Duraisamy Y, Slevin M, Smith N, et al. Effect of glycation on basic fibroblast growth factor induced angiogenesis and activation of associated signal transduction pathways in vascular endothelial cells: possible relevance to wound healing in diabetes. Angiogenesis 2001;4:277–288.
59. Huynh NT, Tayek JA. Oral arginine reduces systemic blood pressure in type 2 diabetes: its potential role in nitric oxide generation. J Am Coll Nutr 2002;21:422–427.
60. Cardillo C, Campia U, Bryant MB, et al. Increased activity of endogenous endothelin in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Circulation 2002;106:1783–1787.
61. Schneider JG, Tilly N, Hierl T, et al. Elevated plasma endothelin-1 levels in diabetes mellitus. Am J Hypertens 2002;15:967–972.
62. Aronson D. Potential role of advanced glycosylation end products in promoting restenosis in diabetes and renal failure. Med Hypothesis 2002;59:291–301.
63. Sowers JR, Lester MA. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes Care 1999;22(suppl 3):C14–C20.
64. Maytin M, Leopold J, Loscalzo J. Oxidant stress in the vasculature. Curr Atheroscler Rep 1999;1:156–164.
65. Meier-Ewert HK, Nesto RW. Targeting the use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists—the diabetic patient. Rev Cardiovasc Med 2002;2 (suppl 1):20–27.
66. Vaughan DE, Lazos SA, Tong K. Angiotensin II regulates the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in cultured endothelial cells: a potential link between the renin-angiotensin system and thrombosis. J Clin Invest 1995;95:995–1001.
67. Ushio-Fukai M, Zafari AM, Fukui T, et al. P22phox is a critical component of the superoxide-generating NADH/NADPH oxidase system and regulates angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem 1996;271:23317–23321.
68. Laursen JB, Rajagopalan S, Galis Z, et al. Role of superoxide in angiotensin II-induced but not catecholamine-induced hypertension. Circulation 1997;95:588–593.
69. Griendling KK, Ushio-Fukai M, Lassegue B, et al. Angiotensin II signaling in vascular smooth muscle: new concepts. Hypertension 1997; 29:366–373.
70. Muller DN, Mervaala EM, Dechend R, et al. Angiotensin II (AT(1)) receptor blockade reduces vascular tissue factor in angiotensin II-induced cardiac vasculopathy. Am J Pathol 2000;157:111–122.
71. Muller DN, Dechend R, Mervaala EM, et al. N Λ-kappaB inhibition ameliorates angiotensin II-induced inflammatory damage in rats. Hypertension 2000;35:193–201.
72. Gavras H, Brunner HR. Role of angiotensin and its inhibition in hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and heart failure. Hypertension 2001;37:312–315.
73. Dzau VJ. Theodore Cooper Lecture: tissue angiotensin and pathobiology of vascular disease: a unifying hypothesis. Hypertension 2001;37: 1047–1052.
74. Sowers JR. Hypertension, angiotensin II, and oxidative stress. N Engl J Med 2002;346:1999–2001.
75. Kalinowski L, Matys T, Chabiedska E, et al. Angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonists inhibit platelet adhesion and aggregation of nitric oxide release. Hypertension 2002;40:521–527.
76. Ammar RF, Gutterman DD, Brooks LA, et al. Free radicals mediate endothelial dysfunction of coronary arterioles in diabetes. Cardiovasc Res 2000;595–601.
77. Huerta MG, Nadler JL. Role of inflammatory pathways in development of cardiovascular complications of diabetes. Curr Diabetes Rep 2002;2:396–402.
78. Pradhan AD, Ridker PM. Do atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes share a common inflammatory basis? Eur Heart J 2002;23:831–884.
79. Brown NJ, Kim KS, Chen YQ, et al. Synergistic effect of adrenal steroids and angiotensin II on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 production. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:336–344.
80. Brown NJ, Nakamura S, Ma L, et al. Aldosterone modulates plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and glomerulosclerosis in vivo. Kidney Int 2000;58:1219–1227.
81. Sawathiparnich P, Kumar S, Vaughan DE, et al. Spironolactone abolishes the relationship between aldosterone and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87: 448–452.
82. Brown NJ, Agirbasli MA, Williams GH, et al. Effect of activation and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system on plasma PAI-1. Hypertension 1998;32:965–971.
83. Rocha R, Stier CT Jr, Kifor I, et al. Aldosterone: a mediator of myocardial necrosis and renal arteriopathy. Endocrinology 2000;141: 3871–3878.
84. Duprez D, De Buyzere M, Rietzschel FR, et al. Aldosterone and vascular damage. Curr Hypertens Rep 2000;2:327–334.
85. Neumann S, Huse K, Semrau R, et al. Aldosterone and D-glucose stimulate the proliferation of human cardiac myofibroblasts in vitro. Hypertension 2002;39:756–760.
86. Festa A, D’Agostino R Jr, Howard G, et al. Chronic subclinical inflammation as part of the insulin resistance syndrome: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). Circulation 2000;102:42–47.
87. Dubey RK, Jackson EK, Luscher TF. Nitric oxide inhibits angiotensin II-induced migration of rat aortic smooth muscle cell. Role of cyclic-nucleotides and angiotensin I receptors. J Clin Invest 1995;96:141–149.
88. Peng HB, Libby P, Liao JK. Induction and stabilization of I kappa B alpha by nitric oxide mediates inhibition of NF-kappa B. J Biol Chem 1995;270:14214–14219.
89. De Caterina R, Libby P, Peng HB, et al. Nitric oxide decreases cytokine-induced endothelial activation. Nitric oxide selectively reduces endothelial expression of adhesion molecules and proinflammatory cytokines. J Clin Invest 1995;96:60–68.
90. Chen YQ, Su M, Walia RR, et al. Sp1 sites mediate activation of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoter by glucose in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem 1998;273:8225–8231.
91. Vaughan DE, Rouleau JL, Ridker PM, et al. Effects of ramipril on plasma fibrinolytic balance in patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction. HEART Study Investigators. Circulation 1997;96:442–447.
92. Brown NJ, Agirbasli M, Vaughan DE. Comparative effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonism on plasma fibrinolytic balance in humans. Hypertension 1999;34:285–290.
93. Sato A, Funder JW. High glucose stimulates aldosterone-induced hypertrophy via type 1 mineralocorticoid receptors in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Endocrinology 1996;137:4145–4153.
94. Neumann S, Huse K, Semrau R, et al. Aldosterone and D-glucose stimulate the proliferation of human cardiac myofibroblasts in vitro. Hypertension 2002;39:756–760.
95. Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme WJ, et al. The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 1999;341:709–717.