2. Kay MA, Glorioso JC, Naldini L. Viral vectors for gene therapy: the art of turning infectious agents into vehicles of therapeutics. Nat Med 2001;7:33–40.
3. Johnston JC, Gasmi M, Lim LE, et al. Minimum requirements for efficient transduction of dividing and nondividing cells by feline immunodeficiency virus vectors. J Virol 1999;73:4991–5000.
4. Naldini L, Blomer U, Gallay P, et al. In vivo gene delivery and stable transduction of nondividing cells by a lentiviral vector. Science 1996;272:263–267.
5. Palu G, Parolin C, Takeuchi Y, et al. Progress with retroviral gene vectors. Rev Med Virol 2000;10:185–202.
6. Powell SK, Kaloss M, Burimski I, et al. In vitro analysis of transformation potential associated with retroviral vector insertions. Hum Gene Ther 1999;10:2123–2132.
7. Kaiser J. Gene therapy: seeking the cause of induced leukemias in X-SCID trial. Science 2003;299:495.
8. Hacein-Bey-Abina S, Le Deist F, Carlier F, et al. Sustained correction of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency by ex vivo gene therapy. N Engl J Med 2002;346:1185–1193.
9. Hacein-Bey-Abina S, von Kalle C, Schmidt M, et al. A serious adverse event after successful gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. N Engl J Med 2003;348:255–256.
10. Verma IM. A voluntary moratorium? Mol Ther 2003;7:141.
11. Aiuti A, Slavin S, Aker M, et al. Correction of ADA-SCID by stem cell gene therapy combined with nonmyeloablative conditioning. Science 2002;296:2410–2413.
12. Blaese RM, Culver KW, Miller AD, et al. T lymphocyte–directed gene therapy for ADA-SCID: initial trial results after 4 years. Science 1995;270:475–480.
13. Check E. A tragic setback. Nature 2002;420:116–118.
14. Monahan PE, Samulski RJ. AAV vectors: is clinical success on the horizon? Gene Ther 2000;7:24–30.
15. Young SM Jr, McCarty DM, Degtyareva N, et al. Roles of adeno- associated virus Rep protein and human chromosome 19 in site- specific recombination. J Virol 2000;74:3953–3966.
16. Duan D, Sharma P, Yang J, et al. Circular intermediates of recombinant adeno-associated virus have defined structural characteristics responsible for long-term episomal persistence in muscle tissue. J Virol 1998;72:8568–8577.
17. Schnepp BC, Clark KR, Klemanski DL, et al. Genetic fate of recombinant adeno-associated virus vector genomes in muscle. J Virol 2003;77:3495–3504.
18. Monahan PE, Samulski RJ. Adeno-associated virus vectors for gene therapy: more pros than cons? Mol Med Today 2000;6:433–440.
19. High K. Gene-based approaches to the treatment of hemophilia. Ann NY Acad Sci 2002;961:63–64.
20. Snyder RO, Miao CH, Patijn GA, et al. Persistent and therapeutic concentrations of human factor IX in mice after hepatic gene transfer of recombinant AAV vectors. Nat Genet 1997;16:270–276.
21. Kaplitt MG, Leone P, Samulski RJ, et al. Long-term gene expression and phenotypic correction using adeno-associated virus vectors in the mammalian brain. Nat Genet 1994;8:148–154.
22. Engelhardt JF. The lung as a metabolic factory for gene therapy. J Clin Invest 2002;110:429–432.
23. During MJ, Xu R, Young D, et al. Peroral gene therapy of lactose intolerance using an adeno-associated virus vector. Nat Med 1998; 4:1131–1135.
24. Wolfe D, Goins WF, Yamada M, et al. Engineering herpes simplex virus vectors for CNS applications. Exp Neurol 1999;159:34–46.
25. Burton EA, Wechuck JB, Wendell SK, et al. Multiple applications for replication-defective herpes simplex virus vectors. Stem Cells 2001;19:358–377.
26. Glorioso JC, Fink DJ. Use of HSV vectors to modify the nervous system. Curr Opin Drug Discov Dev 2002;5:289–295.
27. Goss JR, Goins WF, Lacomis D, et al. Herpes simplex–mediated gene transfer of nerve growth factor protects against peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in the mouse. Diabetes 2002;51:2227–2232.
28. Horwitz MS. Adenoviruses. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, eds. Fields virology. Vol. 2. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001: 2301–2326.
29. Hitt MM, Graham FL. Adenovirus vectors for human gene therapy. Adv Virus Res 2000;55:479–505.
30. Crystal RG, Jaffe A, Brody S, et al. A phase 1 study, in cystic fibrosis patients, of the safety, toxicity, and biological efficacy of a single administration of a replication deficient, recombinant adenovirus carrying the cDNA of the normal cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene in the lung. Hum Gene Ther 1995;6:643–666.
31. Kovesdi I, Brough DE, Bruder JT, et al. Adenoviral vectors for gene transfer. Curr Opin Biotechnol 1997;8:583–589.
32. Yang Y, Li Q, Ertl HC, et al. Cellular and humoral immune responses to viral antigens create barriers to lung-directed gene therapy with recombinant adenoviruses. J Virol 1995;69:2004–2015.
33. Yang Y, Jooss KU, Su Q, et al. Immune responses to viral antigens versus transgene product in the elimination of recombinant adenovirus–infected hepatocytes in vivo. Gene Ther 1996;3:137–144.
34. Dai Y, Schwarz EM, Gu D, et al. Cellular and humoral immune responses to adenoviral vectors containing factor IX gene: tolerization of factor IX and vector antigens allows for long-term expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995;92:1401–1405.
35. Weiss R, Nelson D. Teen dies undergoing gene therapy. Washington Post, 1999:A1.
36. Kochanek S, Schiedner G, Volpers C. High-capacity “gutless” adenoviral vectors. Curr Opin Mol Ther 2001;3:454–463.
37. Kochanek S. High-capacity adenoviral vectors for gene transfer and somatic gene therapy. Hum Gene Ther 1999;10:2451–2459.
38. Reddy PS, Sakhuja K, Ganesh S, et al. Sustained human factor VIII expression in hemophilia A mice following systemic delivery of a gutless adenoviral vector. Mol Ther 2002;5:63–73.
39. Balague C, Zhou J, Dai Y, et al. Sustained high-level expression of full-length human factor VIII and restoration of clotting activity in hemophilic mice using a minimal adenovirus vector. Blood 2000;95: 820–828.
40. Nishikawa M, Huang L. Nonviral vectors in the new millennium: delivery barriers in gene transfer. Hum Gene Ther 2001;12:861–870.
41. Akhtar S, Hughes MD, Khan A, et al. The delivery of antisense therapeutics. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2000;44:3–21.
42. Paul CP, Good PD, Winer I, et al. Effective expression of small interfering RNA in human cells. Nat Biotechnol 2002;20:505–508.
43. Somiari S, Glasspool-Malone J, Drabick JJ, et al. Theory and in vivo application of electroporative gene delivery. Mol Ther 2000;2:178–187.
44. Lin MT, Pulkkinen L, Uitto J, et al. The gene gun: current applications in cutaneous gene therapy. Int J Dermatol 2000;39:161–170.
45. Lu QL, Liang HD, Partridge T, et al. Microbubble ultrasound improves the efficiency of gene transduction in skeletal muscle in vivo with reduced tissue damage. Gene Ther 2003;10:396–405.
46. Dauty E, Remy JS, Blessing T, et al. Dimerizable cationic detergents with a low cmc condense plasmid DNA into nanometric particles and transfect cells in culture. J Am Chem Soc 2001;123:9227–9234.
47. Wu AG, Liu X, Mazumder A, et al. Improvement of gene transduction efficiency in T lymphocytes using retroviral vectors. Hum Gene Ther 1999;10:977–982.
48. Lim YB, Han SO, Kong HU, et al. Biodegradable polyester, poly[alpha-(4-aminobutyl)-L-glycolic acid], as a non-toxic gene carrier. Pharm Res 2000;17:811–816.
49. Krieg AM, Yi AK, Matson S, et al. CpG motifs in bacterial DNA trigger direct B-cell activation. Nature 1995;374:546–549.
50. Tousignant JD, Gates AL, Ingram LA, et al. Comprehensive analysis of the acute toxicities induced by systemic administration of cationic lipid:plasmid DNA complexes in mice. Hum Gene Ther 2000; 11:2493–2513.
51. Li S, Wu SP, Whitmore M, et al. Effect of immune response on gene transfer to the lung via systemic administration of cationic lipidic vectors. Am J Physiol 1999;276:796–804.
52. Ruiz FE, Clancy JP, Perricone MA, et al. A clinical inflammatory syndrome attributable to aerosolized lipid-DNA administration in cystic fibrosis. Hum Gene Ther 2001;12:751–761.
53. Nakai H, Montini E, Fuess S, et al. Helper-independent and AAV-ITR–independent chromosomal integration of double-stranded linear DNA vectors in mice. Mol Ther 2003;7:101–111.
54. Thyagarajan B, Olivares EC, Hollis RP, et al. Site-specific genomic integration in mammalian cells mediated by phage phiC31 integrase. Mol Cell Biol 2001;21:3926–3934.
55. Olivares EC, Hollis RP, Chalberg TW, et al. Site-specific genomic integration produces therapeutic factor IX levels in mice. Nat Biotechnol 2002;20:1124–1128.
56. Heister T, Heid I, Ackermann M, et al. Herpes simplex virus type 1/adeno-associated virus hybrid vectors mediate site-specific integration at the adeno-associated virus preintegration site, AAVS1, on human chromosome 19. J Virol 2002;76:7163–7173.
57. Schmidt M, Afione S, Kotin RM. Adeno-associated virus type 2 Rep78 induces apoptosis through caspase activation independently of p53. J Virol 2000;74:9441–9450.
58. Metselaar JM, Mastrobattista E, Storm G. Liposomes for intravenous drug targeting: design and applications. Mini Rev Med Chem 2002;2:319–329.
59. Wu H, Seki T, Dmitriev I, et al. Double modification of adenovirus fiber with RGD and polylysine motifs improves coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor–independent gene transfer efficiency. Hum Gene Ther 2002;13:1647–1653.
60. Snyder EL, Dowdy SF. Protein/peptide transduction domains: potential to deliver large DNA molecules into cells. Curr Opin Mol Ther 2001;3:147–152.
61. Gratton JP, Yu J, Griffith JW, et al. Cell-permeable peptides improve cellular uptake and therapeutic gene delivery of replication-deficient viruses in cells and in vivo. Nat Med 2003;9:357–363.
62. Mi Z, Mai J, Lu X, et al. Characterization of a class of cationic peptides able to facilitate efficient protein transduction in vitro and in vivo. Mol Ther 2000;2:339–347.
63. Curiel DT. Considerations and challenges for the achievement of targeted gene delivery. Gene Ther 1999;6:1497–1498.
64. Russell SJ, Cosset FL. Modifying the host range properties of retroviral vectors. J Gene Med 1999;1:300–311.
65. Rosenberg SA, Aebersold P, Cornetta K, et al. Gene transfer into humans—immunotherapy of patients with advanced melanoma, using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes modified by retroviral gene transduction. N Engl J Med 1990;323:570–578.
66. Grossman M, Rader DJ, Muller DW, et al. A pilot study of ex vivo gene therapy for homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia. Nat Med 1995;1:1148–1154.
67. Wilson JM, Grossman M, Wu CH, et al. Hepatocyte-directed gene transfer in vivo leads to transient improvement of hypercholesterolemia in low density lipoprotein receptor–deficient rabbits. J Biol Chem 1992;267:963–967.
69. Takahashi H, Hirai Y, Migita M, et al. Long-term systemic therapy of Fabry disease in a knockout mouse by adeno-associated virus–mediated muscle-directed gene transfer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002;99:13777–13782.
70. Ponder KP, Melniczek JR, Xu L, et al. Therapeutic neonatal hepatic gene therapy in mucopolysaccharidosis VII dogs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002;99:13102–13107.
71. Taylor SI. Deconstructing type 2 diabetes. Cell 1999;97:9–12.
72. Kahn BB. Type 2 diabetes: when insulin secretion fails to compensate for insulin resistance. Cell 1998;92:593–596.
73. Roper NA, Bilous RW, Kelly WF, et al. Excess mortality in a population with diabetes and the impact of material deprivation: longitudinal, population based study. BMJ 2001;322:1389–1393.
74. Efrat S. Preventing type 1 diabetes mellitus: the promise of gene therapy. Am J Pharmacogenomics 2002;2:129–134.
75. Yamaoka T. Regeneration therapy of pancreatic beta cells: towards a cure for diabetes? Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002;296:1039–1043.
76. Freeman DJ, Leclerc I, Rutter GA. Present and potential future use of gene therapy for the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus [Review]. Int J Mol Med 1999;4:585–592.
77. Dhillon H, Kalra SP, Kalra PS. Dose-dependent effects of central leptin gene therapy on genes that regulate body weight and appetite in the hypothalamus. Mol Ther 2001;4:139–145.
78. Desai UJ, Slosberg ED, Boettcher BR, et al. Phenotypic correction of diabetic mice by adenovirus-mediated glucokinase expression. Diabetes 2001;50:2287–2295.
79. Giannoukakis N, Robbins PD. Gene and cell therapies for diabetes mellitus: strategies and clinical potential. Biodrugs 2002;16:149–173.
80. U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993;329:977–986.
81. U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet 1998;352:837–853.
82. Garber AJ. The importance of early insulin secretion and its impact on glycaemic regulation. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000;24 (suppl 3):32–37.
83. Bastyr EJ 3rd, Stuart CA, Brodows RG, et al. Therapy focused on lowering postprandial glucose, not fasting glucose, may be superior for lowering HbA1c. IOEZ Study Group. Diabetes Care 2000;23: 1236–1241.
84. DeFronzo RA. Pharmacologic therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med 1999;131:281–303.
85. Cryer PE, Fisher JN, Shamoon H. Hypoglycemia. Diabetes Care 1994;17:734–755.
86. U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet 1998;352: 854–865.
87. Reaven GM. Insulin resistance: a chicken that has come to roost. Ann NY Acad Sci 1999;892:45–57.
88. Polonsky WH, Anderson BJ, Lohrer PA, et al. Insulin omission in women with IDDM. Diabetes Care 1994;17:1178–1185.
89. Shapiro AM, Lakey JR, Ryan EA, et al. Islet transplantation in seven patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus using a glucocorticoid-free immunosuppressive regimen. N Engl J Med 2000;343:230–238.
90. Weir GC, Bonner-Weir S. Scientific and political impediments to successful islet transplantation. Diabetes 1997;46:1247–1256.
91. Bonner-Weir S, Sharma A. Pancreatic stem cells. J Pathol 2002;197: 519–526.
92. Serup P, Madsen OD, Madrup-Poulsen T. Islet and stem cell transplantation for treating diabetes. BMJ 2001;322:29–32.
93. Lechner A, Habener JF. Stem/progenitor cells derived from adult tissues: potential for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Am J Physiol 2003;284:E259–E266.
94. Efrat S. Prospects for gene therapy of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 1998;41:1401–1409.
95. Bailey CJ, Davies EL, Docherty K. Prospects for insulin delivery by ex-vivo somatic cell gene therapy. J Mol Med 1999;77:244–249.
96. Laub O, Rutter WJ. Expression of the human insulin gene and cDNA in a heterologous mammalian system. J Biol Chem 1983;258: 6043–6050.
97. Permutt MA, Chirgwin J, Rotwein P, et al. Insulin gene structure and function: a review of studies using recombinant DNA methodology. Diabetes Care 1984;7:386–394.
98. Selden RF, Skoskiewicz MJ, Russell PS, et al. Regulation of insulin-gene expression: implications for gene therapy. N Engl J Med 1987; 317:1067–1076.
99. Dodson G, Steiner D. The role of assembly in insulin’s biosynthesis. Curr Opin Struct Biol 1998;8:189–194.
100. Hutton JC, Rhodes CJ. The enzymology of proinsulin conversion. Cell Biophys 1991;19:57–62.
101. Steiner DF. The proprotein convertases. Curr Opin Chem Biol 1998; 2:31–39.
102. Yanagita M, Hoshino H, Nakayama K, et al. Processing of mutated proinsulin with tetrabasic cleavage sites to mature insulin reflects the expression of furin in nonendocrine cell lines. Endocrinology 1993; 133:639–644.
103. Arcelloni C, Falqui L, Martinenghi S, et al. Processing and release of human proinsulin-cleavage products into culture media by different engineered non-endocrine cells: a specific assessment by capillary electrophoresis. J Endocrinol 2000;166:437–445.
104. Yamasaki K, Sasaki T, Nemoto M, et al. Differentiation-induced insulin secretion from nonendocrine cells with engineered human proinsulin cDNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1999;265:361–365.
105. Falqui L, Martinenghi S, Severini GM, et al. Reversal of diabetes in mice by implantation of human fibroblasts genetically engineered to release mature human insulin. Hum Gene Ther 1999;10:1753–1762.
106. Simonson GD, Groskreutz DJ, Gorman CM, et al. Synthesis and processing of genetically modified human proinsulin by rat myoblast primary cultures. Hum Gene Ther 1996;7:71–78.
107. Lee HC, Kim SJ, Kim KS, et al. Remission in models of type 1 diabetes by gene therapy using a single-chain insulin analogue. Nature 2000;408:483–488.
108. Wahren J, Ekberg K, Johansson J, et al. Role of C-peptide in human physiology. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2000;278:759–768.
109. Halban PA, Kahn SE, Lernmark A, et al. Gene and cell-replacement therapy in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. How high must the standards be set? Diabetes 2001;50:2181–2191.
110. Nicolau C, Le Pape A, Soriano P, et al. In vivo expression of rat insulin after intravenous administration of the liposome-entrapped gene for rat insulin I. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1983;80:1068–1072.
111. Soriano P, Dijkstra J, Legrand A, et al. Targeted and nontargeted liposomes for in vivo transfer to rat liver cells of plasmid containing the preproinsulin I gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1983;80:7128–7131.
112. Rencurel F, Girard J. Regulation of liver gene expression by glucose. Proc Nutr Soc 1998;57:265–275.
113. Mitanchez D, Doiron B, Chen R, et al. Glucose-stimulated genes and prospects of gene therapy for type 1 diabetes. Endocr Rev 1997; 18:520–540.
114. Mitanchez D, Chen R, Massias JF, et al. Regulated expression of mature human insulin in the liver of transgenic mice. FEBS Lett 1998; 421:285–289.
115. Auricchio A, Gao GP, Yu QC, et al. Constitutive and regulated expression of processed insulin following in vivo hepatic gene transfer. Gene Ther 2002;9:963–971.
116. Olefsky JM. Diabetes. Gene therapy for rats and mice. Nature 2000; 408:420–421.
117. Thule PM, Liu JM. Regulated hepatic insulin gene therapy of STZ-diabetic rats. Gene Ther 2000;7:1744–1752.
118. Thule PM, Liu J, Phillips LS. Glucose regulated production of human insulin in rat hepatocytes. Gene Ther 2000;7:205–214.
119. Chen R, Meseck ML, Woo SL. Auto-regulated hepatic insulin gene expression in type 1 diabetic rats. Mol Ther 2001;3:584–590.
120. Ferber S, Halkin A, Cohen H, et al. Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 induces expression of insulin genes in liver and ameliorates streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia. Nat Med 2000;6: 568–572.
121. Stoffers DA, Zinkin NT, Stanojevic V, et al. Pancreatic agenesis attributable to a single nucleotide deletion in the human IPF1 gene coding sequence. Nat Genet 1997;15:106–110.
122. Sander M, German MS. The beta cell transcription factors and development of the pancreas. J Mol Med 1997;75:327–340.
123. Kojima H, Nakamura T, Fujita Y, et al. Combined expression of pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 and islet factor 1 induces immature enterocytes to produce insulin. Diabetes 2002;51:1398–1408.
124. Yoshida S, Kajimoto Y, Yasuda T, et al. PDX-1 induces differentiation of intestinal epithelioid IEC-6 into insulin-producing cells. Diabetes 2002;51:2505–2513.
125. Kolodka TM, Finegold M, Moss L, et al. Gene therapy for diabetes mellitus in rats by hepatic expression of insulin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995;92:3293–3297.
126. Muzzin P, Eisensmith RC, Copeland KC, et al. Hepatic insulin gene expression as treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus in rats. Mol Endocrinol 1997;11:833–837.
127. Dong H, Morral N, McEvoy R, et al. Hepatic insulin expression improves glycemic control in type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2001;52:153–163.
128. Short DK, Okada S, Yamauchi K, et al. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of a modified human proinsulin gene reverses hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. Am J Physiol 1998;275:748–756.
129. Zhang W, Lu D, Kawazu S, et al. Adenoviral insulin gene therapy prolongs survival of IDDM model BB rats by improving hyperlipidemia. Horm Metab Res 2002;34:577–582.
130. Riu E, Mas A, Ferre T, et al. Counteraction of type 1 diabetic alterations by engineering skeletal muscle to produce insulin: insights from transgenic mice. Diabetes 2002;51:704–711.
131. Martinenghi S, Cusella De Angelis G, Biressi S, et al. Human insulin production and amelioration of diabetes in mice by electrotransfer-enhanced plasmid DNA gene transfer to the skeletal muscle. Gene Ther 2002;9:1429–1437.
132. Rivera VM, Wang X, Wardwell S, et al. Regulation of protein secretion through controlled aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum. Science 2000;287:826–830.
133. Moore HP, Walker MD, Lee F, et al. Expressing a human proinsulin cDNA in a mouse ACTH-secreting cell: intracellular storage, proteolytic processing, and secretion on stimulation. Cell 1983;35:531–538.
134. Lipes MA, Cooper EM, Skelly R, et al. Insulin-secreting non-islet cells are resistant to autoimmune destruction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996;93:8595–8600.
135. Hughes SD, Johnson JH, Quaade C, et al. Engineering of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and biosynthesis in non-islet cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992;89:688–692.
136. Faradji RN, Havari E, Chen Q, et al. Glucose-induced toxicity in insulin-producing pituitary cells that coexpress GLUT2 and glucokinase: implications for metabolic engineering. J Biol Chem 2001;6:6.
137. Goldfine ID, German MS, Tseng HC, et al. The endocrine secretion of human insulin and growth hormone by exocrine glands of the gastrointestinal tract. Nat Biotechnol 1997;15:1378–1382.
138. Walsh JH, Grossman MI. Gastrin (first of two parts). N Engl J Med 1975;292:1324–1334.
139. Zhukova E, Afshar A, Ko J, et al. Expression of the human insulin gene in the gastric G cells of transgenic mice. Transgenic Res 2001; 10:329–341.
140. Kieffer TJ, Buchan AM, Barker H, et al. Release of gastric inhibitory polypeptide from cultured canine endocrine cells. Am J Physiol 1994;267:489–496.
141. Wolfe MM, Boylan MO, Kieffer TJ, et al. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP): incretin vs enterogastrone. In: Greeley GHJ, ed. Gastrointestinal endocrinology. Vol. 8. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 1999:439.
142. Cataland S, Crockett SE, Brown JC, et al. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) stimulation by oral glucose in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1974;39:223–228.
143. Elliott RM, Morgan LM, Tredger JA, et al. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7–36)amide and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide secretion in response to nutrient ingestion in man: acute post-prandial and 24-h secretion patterns. J Endocrinol 1993;138:159–166.
144. Hampton SM, Morgan LM, Tredger JA, et al. Insulin and C-peptide levels after oral and intravenous glucose. Contribution of enteroinsular axis to insulin secretion. Diabetes 1986;35:612–616.
145. Cheung AT, Dayanandan B, Lewis JT, et al. Glucose-dependent insulin release from genetically engineered K cells. Science 2000;290: 1959–1962.
146. Cheung AT, Lewis JT, Dayanandan B, et al. Meal-regulated insulin production from intestinal K-cells. Diabetes 2001;50(suppl 2):A6.
147. Dumon KR, Ishii H, Fong LY, et al. FHIT gene therapy prevents tumor development in FHIT-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001;98:3346–3351.
148. Jacomino M, Lau C, James SZ, et al. Gene transfer into fetal rat intestine. Hum Gene Ther 1996;7:1757–1762.
149. Corbett JA. K cells: a novel target for insulin gene therapy for the prevention of diabetes. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2001;12:140–142.
150. Dong H, Anthony K, Morral N. Challenges for gene therapy of type 1 diabetes. Curr Gene Ther 2002;2:403–414.
151. Anderson WF. Human gene therapy. Nature 1998;392:25–30.