Each reference is categorized according to the following scheme: *, classic article; #, review article; !, basic research article; and +, clinical results/outcome study.
# 1. Braddon RL. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1996:284.
+ 2. Cammisa FP, Glasser DB, Otis JC, et al. The Van Nes Tibial Rotationplasty: A Functionally Viable Reconstructive Procedure in Children Who Have a Tumor of the Distal End of the Femur. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1990:72:541.
# 3. Dee R, Mango E, Hurst LC. Principles of Orthopaedic Practice. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989.
# 4. DeLisa JA, Gans BM. Rehabilitation Medicine: Principles and Practice, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott–Raven Publishers, 1998.
+ 5. English Rd, Hubbard WA, McElroy GK. Establishment of Consistent Gait after Fitting of New Components. J Rehabil Res Dev 1995;32:32.
+ 6. Harris IE, Leff AR, Gitelis S, Simona MA. Function after Amputation, Arthrodesis, or Arthroplasty for Tumors about the Knee. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1990;72:1477.
+ 7. Herbert LM, Engsberg JR, Tedford KG, Grimston SK. A Comparison of Oxygen Consumption during Walking between Children with and without Below-knee Amputations. Phys Ther 1994;74:943.
+ 8. Lane JM, Kroll MA, Rossbach PG. New Advances and Concepts in Amputee Management after Treatment for Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas. Clin Orthop 1990;256:22.
+ 9. McClenaghan BA, Krajbich JI, Pirone AM, et al. Comparative Assessment of Gain after Limb-salvage Procedures. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1989;71:1178.
+ 10. Otis JC, Lane JM, Kroll MA. Energy Cost during Gain in Osteosarcoma Patients after Resection and Knee Replacement and after Above-the-knee Amputation. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1985;67:606.
# 11. Pinzur MS. Current Concepts: Amputation Surgery in Peripheral Vascular Disease. Instr Course Lect 1997;46:501.
# 12. Rodriguez RP. Amputation Surgery and Prostheses. Orthop Clin North Am 1996;27:525.
+ 13. Steen Jensen J, Mandrup-Poulsen T. Success Rate of Prosthetic Fitting after Major Amputations of the Lower Limb. Prosthet Orthot Int 1983;7:119.
+ 14. Torburn L, Powers CM, Guiterrez R, Perry J. Energy Expenditure during Ambulation in Dysvascular and Traumatic Below-knee Amputation: A Comparison of Five Prosthetic Feet. J Rehabil Res Dev 1995;32:111.
+ 15. Traugh GH, Corcoran PJ, Reyes RL. Energy Expenditure of Ambulation in Patients with Above-knee Amputations. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1975;56:67.
+ 16. van der Windt DA, Pieterson I, van der Eijken JW, et al. Energy Expenditure during Walking in Subjects with Tibial Rotationplasty, Above-knee Amputation, or Hip Disarticulation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992;73:1174.
+ 17. Volpicelli LJ, Chambers RB, Wagner FW Jr. Amputation Levels of Bilateral Lower-extremity Amputees: Analysis of One Hundred and Three Cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1983;65:599.
! 18. Waters RL, Perry J, Antonelli D, Hislop H. Energy Cost of Walking of Amputees: The Influence of Level of Amputation. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1976;58:42.
+ 19. Zohman GL, Boardman DL, Eckardt JJ, Lane JM. Stride Analysis after Proximal Tibial Replacement. Clin Orthop 1997;339:180.