1. Crawley LM, Marshall PA, Lo B, etal. Strategies for culturally effective end-of-life care. Ann Intern Med 2002;136(9):673–679.
2. Helman C. Culture health and illness, 3rd ed. London: Butterworth-Heineman, 1994.
3. Clinical practice guidelines for quality palliative care. Brooklyn: National Consensus Project for Quality Palliative Care, 2004.
4. Oliviere D, Monroe B, eds. Death, dying and social differences. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
5. Koenig B. Cultural diversity in decisionmaking about care at the end of life. In: Field M, Cassel C, eds. Approaching death: improving care at the end of life (Institute of Medicine). Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997.
6. Hallenbeck J, Goldstein MK. Decisions at the end-of-life: cultural considerations beyond medical ethics. GENERATIONS. 1999;23(1):24–29.
7. Barker JC. Cultural diversity–changing the context of medical practice. West J Med 1992;157(3):248–254.
8. Grimes R. Deeply into the bone—reinventing rites of passage. Berkley, CA: University of California Press, 2000.
9. Hallenbeck J. Palliative care in the final days of life—“they were expecting it at any time”. JAMA 2005;293(18):2265–2271.
10. Braun K, Pietsch J, Blanchette P. Cultural issues in end-of-life decision making. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc, 2000.
11. Lipson JG, Minarik PA, Dibble SL, University of California San Francisco. School of Nursing. Culture and nursing care: a pocket guide. San Francisco, CA: UCSF Nursing Press, 1996.
12. Gunaratnam Y. Culture is not enough—a critique of multi-culturalism in palliative care. In: Small N, ed. Death, gender and ethnicity. London: Routledge, 1997:166–186.
13. Good B. Medicine, rationality, and experience: an anthropological perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
14. Pritchard RS, Fisher ES, Teno JM, etal. Influence of patient preferences and local health system characteristics on the place of death. SUPPORT Investigators. Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Risks and Outcomes of Treatment. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998;46(10):1242–1250.
15. Eleazer GP, Hornung CA, Egbert CB, etal. The relationship between ethnicity and advance directives in a frail older population. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996;44(8):938–943.
16. Field D, Hockey J, Small N, eds. Death, gender and ethnicity. New York: Routledge, 1997.
17. Hall E. The silent language. New York: Anchor, 1990.
18. Lum C, Korenman S. Cultural-sensitivity training in U.S. medical schools. Acad Med 1994;69:239–241.
19. Loudon R, Anderson P, Sing Gill P, Greenfield S. Educating medical students for work in culturally diverse societies. 1999.
20. Wells K, Benson M, Hoff P. Teaching cultural aspects of medicine. J Med Educ 1985;60(6):493–495.
21. Carrillo JE, Green AR, Betancourt JR. Cross-cultural primary care: a patient-based approach. Ann Intern Med 1999;130(10):829–834.
22. Weissman D. Personal Communication.
23. Hallenbeck J. Cross-cultural issues in end-of-life care. In: Weissman DE, Ambuel B, Hallenbeck J, eds. Improving end-of-life care: a resource guide for physician education. 3rd ed. Madison, WI: Medical College of Wisconsin, 2000.
24. Fabrega H. Evolution of sickness and healing. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1997.
25. Hahn R. Sickness and healing—An anthropological perspective. New London: Yale University Press, 1995.
26. Cassell E. The nature of suffering: and the goals of medicine. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
27. Byock IR. The nature of suffering and the nature of opportunity at the end of life. Clin Geriatr Med 1996;12(2):237–252.
28. Kleinman A. Writing in the margin: discourse between anthropology and medicine. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1995.
29. Brady E, ed. Healing Logics—culture and medicine in modern health belief systems. Logan: Utah State University Press, 2001.
30. Marshall PA, Koenig B. Bioethics in anthropology: perspectives on culture, medicine and morality. In: Sargent C, Johnson T, eds. Handbook of medical anthropology—contemporary theory and method. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1996:349–373.
31. Bowman K. Communication, negotiation, and mediation: dealing with conflict in end-of-life decisions. J Palliat Care 2000;(Suppl 16):S17-S23.
32. Chan HM. Sharing death and dying: advance directives, autonomy and the family. Bioethics 2004;18(2):87–103.
33. Orona C, Koenig B, Davis A. Cultural aspects of nondisclosure. Camb Q Healthc Ethics 1994;3:338–346.
34. Frank G, Blackhall L, Michel V, etal. A discourse of relationships in bioethics: patient autonomy and end-of-life decision making among elderly Korean Americans. Med Anthro Q 1998;12(4):403–423.
35. High D. Families’ roles in advance directives. Hastings Cent Rep 1994; 24(Suppl 6):S16-S18.
36. Charlton R. The dilemma of truth disclosure: stoke-on trent, England. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 1997;14(4):166–168.
37. Muller J. Ethical dilemmas in cross-cultural context. West J Med 1992;1992(157):323–327.
38. Hallenbeck J. Intercultural differences and communication at the end of life. Prim Care 2001;28(2):401–413.
39. von Gunten CF, Ferris F, Emanuel L. Ensuring competency in end-of-life care. JAMA 2000;284(23):3051–3057.
40. Krept G, Kunimoto E. Effective communication in multicultural health care settings. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc, 1994.
41. Luckman J. Transcultural communication in health care. Albany: Delmar, 2000.
42. Kogan S, Blanchette P, Masaki K. Talking to patients about death and dying: improving communication across cultures. In: Braun K, Pietsch J, Blanchette P, eds. Cultural issues in end-of-life decision making. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc, 2000:305–325.
43. Chan A, Woodruff R. Comparison of palliative care needs of English and non-English speaking patients. J Palliat Care 1999;15(1):26–30.
44. Rivadeneyra R, Elderkin-Thompson V, Cohen Silver R, etal. Patient centeredness in medical encounters requiring an interpreter. Am J Med 2000;108:470–474.
45. Yeo G. Ethical considerations in Asian and Pacific island elders. Clin Geriatr Med 1995;11:139–152.
46. Suchman AL, Markakis K, Beckman HB, etal. A model of empathic communication in the medical interview. JAMA 1997;277(8):678–682.
47. Carrese J, Rhodes L. Western bioethics on the Navajo reservation. JAMA 1995;274:826–829.
48. Porter R, Samovar L. An introduction to intercultural communication. In: Porter R, Samovar L, eds. Intercultural communication. 8th ed. Belmont, MA: Wadsworth, 1997:5–26.
49. Lee W. That’s Greek to me: between a rock and a hard place in intercultural encounters. In: Samovar L, Porter R, eds. Intercultural communication. 8th ed. Belmont, MA: Wadsworth; 1997:213–216.
50. Frank A. The wounded storyteller—body, illness, and ethics. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
51. Becker G. Disrupted lives—how people create meaning in a chaotic world. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999.
52. Kleinman A. The illness narratives - suffering healing and the human condition. New York: Basic Books, 1988.
53. Hallenbeck J. The explanatory model. J Palliat Med 2003;6(6):931.
54. Culturally effective pediatric care: education and training issues. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediatric Workforce. Pediatrics 1999;103(1):167–170.
55. Beach MC, Price EG, Gary TL, etal. Cultural competence: a systematic review of health care provider educational interventions. Med Care Apr 2005;43(4):356–373.
56. Jennings B, Ryndes T, Donofrio C, etal. Access to hospice care: expanding boundaries, overcoming barriers. Hastings Cent Rep Spec Suppl 2003; 33(2):S3-S59.
57. Reese DJ, Melton E, Ciaravino K. Programmatic barriers to providing culturally competent end-of-life care. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2004;21(5):357–364.
58. Kessler D, Peters TJ, Lee L, etal. Social class and access to specialist palliative care services. Palliat Med 2005;19(2):105–110.
59. Greiner KA, Perera S, Ahluwalia JS. Hospice usage by minorities in the last year of life: results from the National Mortality Followback Survey. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003;51(7):970–978.
60. Moller D. Dancing with broken bones—portraits of death and dying among inner-city poor. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.